WHAT SLEEP DISORDERS ARE THERE, CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS
Sleep disorders are the problems in which person feel difficulty to sleep on regular basis. The group of syndromes which is characterized by difference in the patients amount of sleep, quality or timing of sleep or in behavior or physiological conditions associated with sleep. There are nearly 100 types of diagnosable sleep disorders.
SOME OF THE SLEEP DISORDERS INCLUDE:
- Sleep Related Breathing Disorders
- Circadian Rhythm sleep wake disorders
- Sleep Movement Disorders
INSOMNIA: Inability to stay asleep or fall asleep despite adequate circumstances for sleep. Example: Insomnia.
HYPER SOMNOLENCE: Cause excessive sleepiness Example: Narcolepsy
PARASOMNIAS: Undesirable physical or experimental events that accompany sleep.Example: Sleep walking
SLEEP RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS: Difficulty breathing during sleep Example: Sleep Apnea.
CIRCADIAN RHYTHM SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS: Timings of sleep are out of alignment. Example: Jet lag
SLEEP MOVEMENT DISORDERS: Cause movement during or before sleep. Example: Restless legs syndrome
In the electroencephalogram patterns, the eye movements, muscle activity are been used to identify stages of sleep. Mainly the stages of sleep are classified into two stages:
* Non rapid eye movement sleep (Non-REM)
* Rapid eye movement stage (REM)
NON RAPID EYE MOVEMENT SLEEP: First stage of sleep known as NREM Sleep which consists of four stages.
- STAGE 1: This stage lasts for few minutes. This stage has lightest level of sleep and in this stage there will be gradual fall in vital signs and metabolism. There will be general slowing of EEG frequency. Eyes tend to roll slowly form side to side. Sensory stimuli such as noise easily arouse the person.
- STAGE 2: This stage last for 10 to 20 minutes. This is the period of sound sleep and is the relaxation progresses. Further slowing of EEG. Absent eye ball movements and the body functions continue to slow down in this stage.
- STAGE 3: This stage lasts 15 to 30 minutes. This stage involve initial stage of deep sleep the muscles are relaxed completely. Large slow waves in EEG. In this stage vitals decline but remain regular.
- STAGE 4: This stage lasts approximately 15 to 30 minutes. It is the deepest stage of sleep. The vital signs are lower than during the waking hours and there will be further slowing of EEG.
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT: This stage begins usually about 90 minutes after sleep has begun and the dreaming occur in this stage. In this stage we observe rapid movement of eyes , fluctuating heart and blood pressure and respiratory rates. There will be loss of skeletal muscle tone and increase of gastric secretions. The EEG pattern resembles that of awake state there will be difficulty in arouse the sleeper.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES FOR SLEEP DISORDERS?
- Genetic factors
- Neurobiological factors
- Psychological factors
- Social or environmental factors
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SLEEP DISORDERS?
- Sleep Apnea
- Restless leg syndrome
DIAGNOSIS OF SLEEP DISORDERS:
- Over night oximetry
- Multiple sleep latency testing
- Sleep Dairy
Over night oximetry is one of the sleep study. It involves the use of probe that is worn on the finger which measures oxygen levels and heart rate. This is accomplished with red light and sensor that detects changes in color of blood that suggests desaturation. This type of test helps in identification of nocturnal breathing disorders.
Polysomography: In this test various physiological parameters are monitored when the individual is in sleep including the EEG,EKG, respiration, muscle tone, oxygen level, eye movements etc…
Multiple Sleep latency testing: A patient is allowed to lie for 20 minutes with goal of making him to sleep. The REM of sleep is been monitored. After 20 min the person is awakened and this is repeated two times over 10 hour period.
Actigraphy: This Actigraphy is the measurement of activity with the use of small wrist watch sized device. This device monitors movement and can be used to asses sleep wake cycles or circadian rhythms over an extended period of time. They may be worn for weeks or even months.
Sleep diary: In general, they are a paper record and document sleep and wakefulness over a period of weeks and months.
TREATMENT for sleep disorders :
The treatment may be pharmacological and non pharmacological
The main goals of treatment is to minimize the symptoms, to prevent the complications and to reduce the ADR’s.
NON PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT INCLUDE:
- Sleep hygiene and behavioral interventions
- Relaxation training
- Cognitive therapy
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Dopamine Agonists
- Non benzodiazepine hypnotics
- Melatonin receptor stimulator
- Anti narcoleptics
- Orexin receptor antagonists
Thanks for Reading…..
M KEERTHI KUMARI