What is Meningitis and How is it caused?

What is Meningitis

      Central Nervous system consists of brain and Spinal cord. Protective layers called Meninges surrounds the brain and spinal cord. They are Dura mater, Arachnoid membrane and Pia mater. Meningitis is the inflammation of Meninges, the three membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Inflammation of meninges occurs mostly due to viral, fungal and bacterial infections.

                                    Related image

Epidemiology

    Globally, 1.2 million cases of bacterial meningitis have been estimated every year. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause for bacterial meningitis in United states and Europe. Out of total cases, 61% of the cases are from United states.

Risk factors

  • Meningitis is caused by Bacterial and viral infections
  • Exposure to Endotoxins also causes  meningitis
  • Otitis media, An ear infection
  • Sinusitis
  • Skull fracture
  • Mastoiditis
  • Decreased or compromised Immunity
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Listeriosis

Pathophysiology

                                   
  1. Microbes enters the body and reaches the outer lining of the epithelial tissues through the skin. 
  2. Microbes like bacteria or virus enters the blood circulation through the outer epithelial tissues.
  3. From the circulation, they crosses Blood Brain Barrier and reaches the Central Nervous System.
  4. They produce resistance against the Immune cells and affects and damages Neurons.

Signs and symptoms                                               Image result for Signs and symptoms of meningitis


Diagnosis

  • Serological (blood) tests
  • Cerebrospinal fluid Examination
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Rapid Diagnostic Tests
  • Histopathology
  • Bacterial and Viral culture Examination
  • CT and MRI Scan

Treatment

  • Antibiotics against meningitis caused due to Microbial infections.
  • Steroid treatment with corticosteroids for non-infectious meningitis.
  • Oxygen therapy can improve the condition.

Natural remedies

  • Garlic
  • Hypericum
  • Olive leave oil
  • Reishi mushrooms
  • Ginseng
  • Chlorella
  • Aloe-vera
  • Banana
  • Pineapple
  • Ginger
  • Citrus rich fruits acts as Antioxidants
  • Coconut water
  • Astralagus
  • Plenty of rest
                                         Image result for natural remedies OF meningitis


















Leave a Reply