What is Maternal death?
Maternal death in other terms is called as maternal mortality it is defined as the death of woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of duration and site of pregnancy, from cause which is related or aggravated by pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
- Too many women die during or after pregnancy because of health problems which related to pregnancy.
- In united states, more black and American, Indian/Alaska native women die because of health problems related to pregnancy than white women.
- The leading cause of pregnancy related deaths are heart disease and stroke. They cause more than 1 in 3 deaths.
- These deaths can be prevented by getting regular health care before, during and after pregnancy.
- Learning and sharing of the signs of health complications may reduce the risk of maternal deaths.
WHAT IS PREGNANCY RELATED DEATH?
When women dies during pregnancy or within one year after the end of pregnancy from health problems related to pregnancy such deaths are called to be as pregnancy related deaths.
Maternal deaths are caused by
- Health conditions which the women have before pregnancy that gets worse because of pregnancy condition.
- Other complications like preeclampsia( this usually begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy in woman whose blood pressure had been normal, this may lead to serious, even fatal, complications for both mother and baby)
- Treatment during pregnancy
The causes for maternal death include most common causes such as postpartum bleeding, unsafe abortions, hypertensive disorders, postpartum infections, obstructed labour.
Indirect causes include malaria, anemia, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MATERNAL DEATH:
More than half of maternal deaths occur in fragile and humanitarian settings. The maternal mortality ratio in the developing countries in 2015 in 239 per 100,000 live births versus 12 per 100,000 live births in developed countries.
The developed countries have similar and even lower maternal mortality rates when compared to the United states.
In every year over 300,000 women die in the world from problems that arise during pregnancy and childbirth. About 700 women die each year in US, approximately 830 women die each day word wide.
- Socioeconomic status
- Gender inequality
- Available resources
CAUSES OF MATERNAL DEATH:
- Postpartum Hemorrhage
- High Blood pressure and Eclampsia
- Termination of pregnancy
- Pulmonary Embolism
- Other direct complications
Approximately 10 percent of women die from other direct pregnancy related issues such as conditions like placenta previa, uterine rupture, ectopic pregnancy may lead to death with out proper treatment and care.
Conditions such as diabetes and anemia may also lead to maternal death indirectly these conditions may get worse during pregnancy and may cause death of mother.
HOW TO MAKE PREGNANCY SAFER TO REDUCE MATERNAL DEATH:
Between 1990-2015 the maternal death has gone down by 44 percent. This decrease is due to:
- The education of women
- An increase in use of contraception
- More prenatal care
- More births in hospitals
- Greater availability of antibiotics, blood transfusions
- Advances in specialized care for high risk pregnancies and deliveries
- Access to health care
- Pregnancy care
- Postpartum monitoring
C- Section Death Statistics:
The chance of dying from cesarean section is still rare. The complications from C-section that lead to maternal death include:
- Blood clots
- Anesthesia reactions
- Blood loss
- Injury to other organs during surgery.
If we provide regular prenatal care, follow proper care, follow good life style choices and have skilled health practitioner at delivery the chances of having maternal deaths can be avoided.
Thanks for Reading…… “Be Healthy”
M KEERTHI KUMARI