Diabetes Mellitus

WHAT IS HUMULIN AND HOW IT IS USED IN DIABETES MELLITUS?

What is Humulin(Human Insulin)?

Humulin…. the another name of humulin is called “Human insulin”. Insulin…. as we would have already heard this word before.Insulin is the hormone which is secreted in the pancreas by Beta cells called “Islets of langerhans”. The main function of insulin is to reduce the glucose levels in the body. What is the main purpose of reducing glucose levels. As this function is useful in the case of diabetes. Not only in diabetes cases, but also it mainly helps to regulate the blood sugars.

Diabetes…. This is the most common disease we have been seeing in our daily life. In order to control diabetes, insulin is required, because in patients of diabetes, they are lack of insulin so we have to give insulin from external sources.

 In previous days, in order to extract insulin and to prepare that, the insulin have to extract from different animals pancreas such as cow, sheep, buffaloes etc..,.. In the process of such extraction, many animals would have to sacrifice their lives for the sake of small amounts of insulin.

What is Diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is the most common of the endocrine disorders. It is chronic condition, characterized by hyperglycemia and due to impaired insulin secretion with or without insulin resistance. it is characterized by dysfunction in the following:
  •       Metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, protein, and insulin.
  •       Function and structure of blood vessels and nerves.
 

 
CLASSIFICATION: There are four clinical classes of diabetes:
    Type-1
    Type-2
   Gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), and other specific types (secondary DM). although not a type of diabetes, pre-diabetes is included with classification of glucose abnormality.
What is Type-1 Diabetes?
Type-1 diabetes is a disease characterized by destruction of insulin producingpancreatic beta cells, the development of which is either auto immune t-cell mediated destruction(type-1A) or idiopathic (type-1B). in over 90% of cases beta cell destruction is associated with auto immune disease. type diabetes is usually develops in the young(below the age 30), although it can develop at any age and is usually associated with a faster onset of symptoms leading to dependence on extrinsic insulin for survival.
What is Type-2 Diabetes?
         Type-2 diabetes is more common above the age of 40, with a peak age of onset in developed countries between 60&70 years, although it is being increasingly seen in younger people and even children it is caused by a relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. symptoms are generally slower in onset and less marked than those of type-1. type-2 diabetes may be an incidental finding, particularly when patient present with complications associated with the disease, for example heart disease. type-2 disease often progress the extent where by extrinsic insulin is required to maintain the blood glucose level. the important thing to aware of  that it is predominantly the degree of metabolic abnormality that is the key determinant of the form treatment.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?
It is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance that has its onset or is first detected during pregnancy.
·Occurs in 2-4% of pregnant women, generally during the second or third trimester.
·A follow up glucose tolerance test should be perform at 6 weeks after pregnancy. glucose regulation would then be re classified as Diabetes Mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or normoglycemia. in the majority of cases glucose regulation returns to normal post pregnancy.
· Occurrence of GDM (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) future risk for developing type-2 diabetes

OTHER SPECIFIC TYPES (secondary diabetes): Broad term used to classify patients who have unusual causes of diabetes owing to certain disease of the pancreas, genetic defects, endocrinopathies, or drugs.
Pre Diabetes: Term used to refer to an intermediate metabolic stage between normal glucose homeostasis and diabetes. pre diabetes is a risk factor for further Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
Pathophysiology:

Insulin production

ETIOLOGY:
TYPE-1:
Family history
Environment Factors
Auto antibodies
TYPE-2:            
Weight
Less activity
Age
Hypertension
PCOS (Poly cystic ovary syndrome)
Increased lipid levels.
What are the SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS?
Poly urea
polyphagia
polydipsia
weight loss
nocturia
lethargy
How Humulin is produced by R-DNA (Recombinant DNA) technology?
  • Humulin is the product which is produced from this technique.
  • This technique is very advanced and useful to create many innovative inventions. This technique runs in the way of genetic engineering, gene transfer, gene modifications etc..,
  • So, in the way of genetic engineering, this humulin was prepared.
  • Let’s  see the process of preparation of humulin.
  • As we know that in our body, in every cell there is a presence of DNA & RNA ie.., genetic material.
  • This rDNA technology produces insulin by firstly collecting the insulin gene from humans.
  • The insulin gene only isolated from the human pancreatic Beta cells, with the help of enzyme  “Restriction endonuclease”.
  • After the isolation, the gene have to replicate and have to show its properties in active state.
  • So the gene is inserted in to plasmid of  bacteria.
  • Here, plasmid is defined as the vehicle which is used to carry DNA and helps it to replicate.
  • Plasmid have to take from prokaryotes, in prokaryotes, E-coli plasmid is selected because it somewhat resembles the activity of mammalian cells.
  • Also E-coli plasmid structure is simple and also its gene consists of only 14 amino acids.
  • As we already known that plasmid have the property to multiplicate the DNA, so the insulin gene is inserted in to E-coli plasmid.
  • The insulin gene combines with plasmid DNA inside the E-coli and produces many number of recombinant insulin gene.
  • After multiplication, it is subjected for cloning.
  • Cloning is done in a fermentor under appropriate favourable conditions such as temperature, PH, aeration along with nutrient agar medium.
  • Now the insulin gene is taken out from fermentor and subjected to downstream processing (separation, adsorption, drying, polishing, purification, marketing).
  • After  undergoing all the processes of downstream processing, it is subjected for marketing.
  • This rDNA technology is the branch of science of biotechnology.
  • By the innovative ideas and inventions of this technique, made many things easily available to the people.
    humulin production                                                                     
                 
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  •                                                                       Presented by                                                                                                                                 Stella mercy, S. Sai sushma




 
 

 

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