Sexually Transmitted Infections

What are STDs

        A disease or Infection that will be transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact caused by different types of microbial strains. Different types of sexually transmitted diseases are Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Genital herpes, Trichomoniasis, AIDS, Human Papilloma virus infection etc., which have been caused by different types of bacteria, virus parasites, yeast and other species. The germs that transmits STDs resides in blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. If untreated these may cause painless sores, sometimes leads to infertility.

Epidemiology

      Out of all STDs, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia etc., comes under the curable diseases. Syphilis had infected around 12 million people across the world in 1999. Congenital syphilis also provoked due to infection of syphilis during pregnancy. In 2014 it was reported that, the incidence have been increased to 11.6 cases for 1,00000 live births. Gonorrhea is the second most prevalent sexually  transmitted diseases in the united states. About 3,09341 cases were reported in 2010 arivnd the incidence is more in different parts of Africa.

                         Image result for STDs

Types of STDs

       Most common types of STDs are bacterial and viral infections.
  • Gonorrhea – It is a type of sexual bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhea. It may cause infertility.
  • Syphilis – It is a type of painless sores caused by bacterial infection, treponema.
  • Genital herpes – It is a type of herpes simplex viral infection which affects genital organs. 
  • Trichomoniasis – It is a type of protozoal infection caused by trichomonas vaginalis. 
  • Human papilloma virus infection 
  • Chlamydia 
                                           Image result for STDs etiology

Etiology

   Most of the STDs caused by bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete bacterium, gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhea, a  gram -ve diplococcus bacterium. Chlamydia is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram -ve bacterium. All these comes under bacterial infections. Viral STDs includes HIV, Genital herpes virus, Human papilloma virus, hepatitis virus etc., Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite trichomonas vaginalis.

Pathophysiology

  • Neisseria gonorrhea attaches to the mucous secreting epithelial cells and has the ability to alter the surface structures.
  • It activates an effective response in the host.
  • Chlamydia infects and obstructs the fallopian tubes and causes infertility.
  • Syphilis invades the mucosal epithelium and spreads to lymph and blood capillaries. It gains the entry through abrasions or hair follicles.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Common symptoms in men like Itching and rashes at the tip of penis,testicles.
  • Milky white yellowish discharge from the penis.
  • Painful urination and ejaculation.
  • Painful blisters appears on the penis.
  • In females, common symptoms like Itching, rashes on vagia.
  • Discharge and painful and burning urination observed.
  • Blisters on vagina. 
  • In case of syphilis patients painless ulcers develops on the genital organs.
  • Fever, fatigue, headache, weight loss and hair loss are observed.
                                            Related image

Diagnosis

  • Serological testing. Blood tests can confirm the presence of infectiouds agents in the blood sample.
  • Urine tests, by collecting the urine sample and physical or chemical examination is done.
  • Fluid sample tests like examining vaginal fluid, semen etc for identifying the infection.
  • Dark field Microscopy to examine the lesions.
  • Immunoflourescence testing.
  • ELISA technique.

Treatment

  • Antibiotics like pencillin-G, Doxycycline, Ceftrioxone, Cefixime, Azithromycin have been used against bacterial strains like Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia etc.,
  • Antiviral drugs like Acyclovir, Valacyclovir have been used against viral infections like Herpes virus etc.,

Leave a Reply