How to control diabetes ?

What is Diabetes


           Diabetes is a condition of increase in the blood glucose(sugar) levels.It is commonly known as Diabetes mellitus. The name diabetes means siphon in Greek as the person suffering from diabetes has a symptom of polyuria (urinating many times like a siphon). Mellitus means honey as their urine contains high sugar content.

Who are most suffering

  • About 30 million people in United states have been suffering from diabetes,out of which  7 millions may be undiagnosed and are unaware of their condition.
  • Nearly 1 out of 10 persons has diagnosed with diabetes.
  • 1 out of 3 persons have prediabetes(border level).

How diabetes occurs(Mechanism)

                               

     Our digestive system contains an accessory organ called pancreas behind the stomach which secretes digestive juices.It contains two types of cells called Alpha and Beta cells. Alpha cells secretes a hormone called Glucagon and Beta cells secretes another hormone called Insulin.The glucose levels are regulated by Insulin. It allows the cells to utilize the excess glucose and convert into energy by metabolism or stored as fat.  

Types of Diabetes
  1. Type-1 – It is an Autoimmune reaction in which own immune cells destroy Beta cells of pancreas by mistake. Insulin deficiency increases the amount of blood glucose levels in blood as cells cannot utilize the glucose to produce energy in the absence of Insulin.10% of diabetic cases are this type.Adults and children are most affected.
  2. Type-2 – It occurs due to lack of Insulin receptors over the cells to transport glucose into it.Insulin will be secreted normally or less but can’t be utilized by the cells.It is the most common type of diabetes. Aged and older people gets affected more. 90% of diabetic cases are this type.
  3. Gestational Diabetes – It develops in women during pregnancy.Mostly it goes after delivery. 
  4. Pre-diabetes – Blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not diabetic. Without proper care,food habits and lifestyle changes they are more likely to be affected with type-2 diabetes.

Risk factors of Diabetes

                                
  • Familial history – Hereditary diabetes is the most common which gets transferred from parents to their children. 
  • Age – As proceeds the insulin secretion and their action onto their receptors slowly decreased.Middle and Old age people are highly affected.
  • Genetics – Due to genetic changes by mutations diabetes may be affected to small children also as autoimmune type-1 diabetes.
  • Race – Some races like African americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans have higher risk of diabetes due to their overweight and blood pressure.
  • Gender – Men are at high risk than women,but after Menopause women might get affected but to less extent than men.
  • Overweight(obesity)
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Low levels of HDL(High Density Lipoproteins-good cholesterol).
  • High levels of Triglycerides and fats(bad cholesterol)
  • High blood pressure
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome in women
  • Sedative lifestyle without exercise

Symptoms

                                   
  • Person feels tired always
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Frequent urination(poly uria)
  • Wounds won’t heal for a long time
  • Excess hunger
  • Blurred vision
  • Sexual problems
  • Numbness or tingling sensation in hands and feet.
  • Feeling thirsty always
  • Dry skin

Complications

                                         
  • Retinopathy – Damage to Retina of Eye.
  • Neuropathy – Damage to Neurons and brain causing tumors.
  • Nephropathy – Damage to Nephrons and kidney.
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetic coma
  • Arthritis – Inflammation and Bone disorders.
  • Cardiovascular disorders

Diagnosis

       For diabetic testing,
  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose test – Estimating blood sugar levels without any food supplements during fasting.
  2. A1C test – Estimating the amount of glucose or sugar level in blood sample   by Haemoglobin A1 c.
  3. Random Plasma Glucose test – Measures the random glucose levels in plasma/ blood. 
  4. Glucose challenge test – To test for gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
  5. Oral glucose tolerance test- Glucose is given orally and testing the glucose levels before and after glucose intake orally and compare the values.
 For Estimation of diabetic values,
  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose test – Less than 99 normal, 100-125 pre-diabetes, More than 126 diabetes.
  2. A1C test – Less than 5.7% normal, 5.7-6.4% pre-diabetes, More than 6.5% diabetes         
  3. Random Plasma Glucose test  – More than 200 Diabetes   

Treatment

  1. Insulin injection therapy.
  2. Biguanides like Metformin
  3. Thiazolidinediones like Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone.
  4. Sulfonylureas like Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Tolbutamide etc.,
  5. Glucosidase inhibitors like Acarbose, Miglitol.
            Consult doctor if you have such symptoms of diabetes. Never go for self-medication or self-therapy. It may leads to dangerous consequences.

Natural Remedies

Avoid

  • Wheat and Cow’s milk contains proteins called gluten and A1 casein which causes leaky gut and inflammation throughout the body,antibodies released leading to autoimmune reaction.
  • Sugar rich or highly processed sugars has to be avoided as they may increase blood glucose levels enormously.
  • Wheat and grains are carbohydrate rich and contains high amounts of sugars, hence these have to be avoided.
  • Alcohol intake may damage the liver thereby prevents metabolism and increase the blood glucose levels.

Preferable

                                       
  • Fibre rich foods –  Slows glucose absorption and causes detoxification. Sprouts, nuts,berries etc.,
  • Chromium rich foods – Broccoli,cheese,beans etc.,
  • Magnesium rich foods – Pumpkin,Almond,Spinach etc.,
  • Cinnamon
  • Vitamin-C containing foods rich in Antioxidants.
  • Exercise regularly to contr.ol blood glucose levels
  • Bitterguard
  • Indian gooseberry
  • Fenugreek
  • Black plum(Neredu)
  • Curry leaves
  • Mango leaves
  • Aloevera
  • Guava
  • Okra(Ladies finger)
                          The most common disorder observed at least one in a family is diabetes. It has to be controlled by self care and by changing food habits and lifestyle. From these different types of natural foods  you can control your blood glucose levels under normal conditions. Maintain a healthy diet, keep on exercising and lead a physically fit, active and happy life.

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