Unlike the other systems in the human body, blood comes under fluid connective tissue.It is made up of different types of blood cells like Red blood cells (transports oxygen), White blood cells (Immunity), Platelets(blood clotting). Blood exerts pressure onto the walls of blood vessels (arteries and veins) and capillaries during circulation throughout the body.It is known as Blood pressure. The blood vessels also exerts equal and opposite pressure onto the blood which is said to be Peripheral vascular resistance. Due to these two pressures high tension will be generated leading to High blood pressure or Hypertension. If low pressure will be exerted than normal, that condition is Low BP.
The Normal blood pressure in an healthy adult will be 120/80. 120 indicates Systolic BP and 80 indicates Diastolic BP. Here systolic BP indicates the blood pressure during contraction of heart i.e., systole. Diastolic BP indicates the blood pressure during relaxation of Heart i.e., Diastole. Any changes from the normal range leads to abnormalities. Exactly to say, should not be less than 120/80 and should not exceed 140/90. If the BP is less than 120/80,it is low BP. If it is more than 140/90,the condition is Hypertension. If the range exists between 120/80 and 140/90 then it is Pre-Hypertension.
High BP causes increased force of contraction of heart and stroke.Low BP causes inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients as they have to be transported only through blood.
Low BP or hypo-tension is caused due to the following reasons.
- Dehydration either due to Excessive physical activity or vomiting, diarrhea will cause hypo-tension as they lose more fluids (water and ions). Prolonged dehydration leads to shock, kidney failure, coma and death.
- Bleeding caused due to accidents, injuries, surgical complications,trauma leads to loss of blood causing hypo-tension.
- Inflammation of organs causes accumulation of fluids and reducing the volume of blood causing hypo-tension.
- Adrenal insufficiency or Addison’s disease, insufficient release of adrenal hormones.
- Orthostatic or Postural hypo-tension
- Septicemia, infection of blood by invasion of bacteria.
- Pulmonary embolism.
High Bp or Hypertension is caused due to the following reasons.
- High salt intake increases ion concentration causing High BP.
- High fat intake
- Alcohol intake
- Age, Old age have high chance of getting hypertension
- Lack of exercise and physical inactivity
- Mental stress
- Pregnancy, the common complication observed in most pregnant women
- Hereditary, Through familial history
Fluctuations in BP will not show any immediate signs.Hence it acts like a silent killer leaving damaging effects on humans.A few symptoms like,
- Fainting due to weakness
- Feeling more and more thirsty
- Blurred vision
- Chest pain
- Slow heart rate(bradycardia)
- Bleeding of nose
- Double vision
- Severe Headache
- Tachycardia (fast heart rate)
Effects or Complications of BP
- Due to inadequate supply of blood may lead to Angina pectoris (chest pain),a heart disease.
- Due to increased levels of urea and creatinine in blood due to less blood supply and less purification, kidney failures may progressed.
- Shock occurs due to less blood supply to different organs.
- Heart stroke/failure
- Coronary artery disease due to narrowing of coronary arteries which supply blood to heart muscle.
- Blood clots
- Thickened blood vessels and narrowing of blood circulating lumen(empty space inside).
- Brain dysfunction and loss of memory(dementia).
- Aneurysm,a bulge in the wall of blood vessel i.e.,may be due to atherosclerosis which means deposition of fat inside the blood vessels.
- Optic nerve damage and retinopathy which may leads to loss of vision.
- Sexual dysfunction
- Bone disorders
- ECG( Electroencephalogram) can detect abnormal slow or rapid heart beat.
- Complete Blood Count will reveal about blood count of RBC, WBC thereby reveals range of Blood pressure.
- Urine and blood tests to identify the amount of sugars,ions etc.,
- Cortisol levels to identify adrenal insufficiency.
- X-rays and CT-scan (computerized tomography) to detect BP related diseases also.
- Echo-cardiogram by Ultrasounds.
- Holter-Monitor records to detect abnormal rhythm of heart.
- For treating hypo-tension, Ibuprofen or Indomethacin may be used. beta blockers like propronlol, selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors like flouxetine,flavoxamine, escitalopram may also be used.
- For hypertension many drugs like ACE inhibitors (Captopril, lisinopril), Angiotensin blockers (losartan, valsartan), Calcium channel blockers, Beta blockers, Renin-angiotensin blockers, thiazide diuretics are used.
- Apart from drugs regular exercise, low salt and fat diet will also controls blood pressure.
- Basil leaves,cinnamon,cardamom,ginger,garlic etc., these are rich Anti-oxidants helps to regulate blood pressure.
- Fruits like grapes,Apple,Banana, watermelon,papaya are very effective in regulating blood pressure.
- Flax seed,Celery seed extract, Arjuna bark also regulates BP.
- Dark chocolate and vitamin-D are very effective against BP.
Abnormal levels of Blood pressure have devastating effects on human health. Our eating habits and lifestyle , plays a prominent role to lead a healthy and happy life. Reduce salt and sugar intake to certain limit to enjoy a sweet life with your loved ones.