HOW RENAL CELL CARCINOMA OCCURS

HOW RENAL CELL CARCINOMA OCCURS

               Renal cell carcinoma is also called hyper-nephroma, renal adenocarcinoma. It is most common kidney cancer found in adults. The kidneys are the organs in the body that help to eliminate waste and regulate fluid balance. The tubes in kidneys are called tubules. These help in filtering the blood, excretion of waste in form of urine. RCC (RENAL  CELL CARCINOMA) occurs when cancer cells start growing uncontrollably in lining of tubules of kidney.

kidney

Kidney stones

                Kidneys are two bean shaped organs, each located behind abdominal organs with one kidney on each side of spine. The incidence of the kidney cancer increasing day by day.

               The carcinoma is an type of cancer which starts in sikn or tissue lining of the organs. Like the other cancers this carcinoma are abnormal cells which divide without control, these even spread to other body parts. The carcinoma is a cancer but all cancers are not carcinoma’s.  This renal cell carcinoma occurs in kidneys and this is a fast growing cancer which spreads to lungs and surronding organs.

WHAT CAUSES RENAL CELL CARCINOMA?

 There is no exact cause of this renal cell carcinoma. This is most commonly found in men between the age 50-70.

 The common risk factors of disease includes:

  • Hypertension
  • Age ( Generally old age)
  • Dialysis treatment
  • Obesity
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Family history
  • Certain inherited syndromes
  • Treatment for kidney failure
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Exposure to certain substances in work place such as cadmium or specific herbicides.

SYMPTOMS RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

The kidney cancer rarely causes signs and symptoms in early stages . The signs and symptoms include:

  • Blood in urine
  • Back pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Tiredness
  • Fever (Intermittent)
  • Lump in abdomen
  • Fatigue
  • Vision problem
  • Excessive hair growth (in women)

 

HOW THIS RENAL CELL CARCINOMA IS DIAGNOSED?

          Generally physical examination is been done, where swelling or lumps in abdomen are observed. In men enlarged veins in scrotal sac is been observed. If the cancer cured or treated the patient may have long term effects which may also include poor functioning of kidney. Other diagnostic techniques include:

  • Complete blood count
  • CT-scan
  • Abdominal and kidney ultrasound
  • Urine examination
  • Biopsy

KIDNEY CANCER STAGES:

There are mainly four stages which are as follows:

mesothelioma study

STAGE 1:  In this stage the tumor is nearly 7 centimeters in diameter. This tumor is been confined to kidney.

STAGE 2: At this stage the size of the tumor increases and in this stage also the tumor is confined to kidneys.

STAGE 3:  Here in this stage the tumor extends beyond the kidney to surrounding tissues and also to the lymph nodes.

STAGE 4:  In this stage the cancer spreads outside kidney and spread over distant body parts such as bones, liver, lungs etc..

 TREATMENT OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA:

There are five kinds of standard treatments for this renal cell carcinoma. They are:

  • Surgery: This surgery include different procedures.  Nephrectomy here a part of kidney is been removed, even complete kidney may be removed depending on the extent of spread of disease. If in case both kidneys are been removed a transplant or dialysis is been suggested.
  • Radiation therapy: This involves high energy X-rays which kill the cancer cells. This radiation given externally by machine or placed internally using wires or seeds.
  • Chemotherapy: The chemotherapy drugs are been used to kill cancer cells. These are been given orally or intravenously depending on the medication.
  • Biologic therapy: This is also called as immune therapy, which works with the immune system to attack the cancer. The enzymes made by body are been used to defend the body against the cancer.
  • Targeted therapy: This is one of the new kind of cancer therapy. Drugs are used to attack certain cancer cells without damaging cells which are healthy. Some drugs act on blood vessels to prevent blood flow to tumor cells there by leading to death of cancer cells.

NON SURGICAL TREATMENT:

Here the cancer cells are been freezed called as cryoablation. During this a special hollow needle is inserted through skin into tumor in kidney using ultrasound cold gas in needle is been used to cool down the cancer cells

Other treatment is to heat the cancer  cells this is called as radio frequency ablation here in this technique a special probe is been inserted through skin by using ultrasound then an electrical current is run through the needle  into cancer cells  leading cells to burn.

PREVENTION:

  • Quit smoking
  • Maintain healthy weight eating diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in fat.
  • Control blood pressure

PREPARED BY

M KEERTHI KUMARI

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