HOW PARKINSON’S DISEASE DEVELOPS IN BODY
Parkinson’s disease is a chronic, progressive neuro degenerative disease, associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain. This parkinson’s disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, including tremors. Nerve cell damage in the brain cause decrease in the dopamine levels leading to parkinsons disease.
This parkinson’s disorder the tremors are common but also cause stiffness or slowing of movement. This disease cant be cured, medications only help in improving the symptoms. Occasionally, surgery may be suggested to regulate certain regions of brain to improve the symptoms.
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE?
Parkinson’s disease affects 1-2 / 1000 of the population. This disease mainly affects the people above 60 years of age. This mainly occur in Asia, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan. Worldwide nearly 8.7 million people are affected with parkinson’s disease.
WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE?
The signs ans symptoms for this parkinsons disease are different for every individuals. Early signs are mild and cannot be noticed. Symptoms usually begin at one side of body and become worse even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.
Signs and symptoms include:
- Slower movement (Bradykinesia)
- Rigid muscles
- Impaired posture and balance
- Loss of automatic movements
- Speech changes
- Writing changes
- Mask like face
- Emotional changes
- Sleep disturbances
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE?
The nerve cells in the brain break down or die, Many symptoms are due to loss of neurons which produce a chemical messenger in brain dopamine.
When the dopamine level increases, it cause abnormal activity of brain, which lead to parkinson’s disease. Causes of parkinson’s include:
- Environmental triggers( neurotoxins,pesticides, insecticides)
- Oxidative stress
- Injury to basal ganglia
- Drugs like Reserpine
- MPTP Poisoning ( methyl phenyl tetrahydro pyridine)
Researchers noted that many changes occur in brain the exact cause for parkinson’s is not known. The changes in brain include:
- Presence of lewis bodies
- Alpha-synuclein found within lewy bodies
- Thinking difficulties
- Depression and emotional changes
- Chewing and eating problems
- Bladder problems
- Change in blood pressure
- Smell dysfunction
- Sexual dysfunction
HOW TO PREVENT PARKNSON’S DISEASE?
The exact cause for this is not known till now. Some research has shown that aerobic exercise might reduce the risk of parkinson’s disease
Other research tells that people who drink caffeine mostly found in coffee, tea, cola… get this disease less often than those people who wont drink them.
DIAGNOSIS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE:
There are no specific tests for detecting parkinson’s disease. This disease is diagnosed based on the medical history, Signs and symptoms, physical examination and neurological examination.
- CT scan, MRI can also be done
- SPECT : The test that can sensitively identify loss of nigrostrital dopamine (DAT scan- dopamine transporter).
SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR TREATING PARKINSON’S DISEASE?
DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION: (DBS) In deep brain stimulation the surgeons implant electrodes into specific part of brain. The electrodes are connected to a generator which is implanted in chest near collar bone which send electrical impulses to brain which may reduce parkinson’s disease.
DBS is effective in controlling erratic and fluctuating response to levodopa or for controlling dyskinesia that doesn’t improve with medication adjustment.
Thanks for reading……
M KEERTHI KUMARI