HOW OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER OCCURS

 

HOW OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER OCCURS

Definition:- Obsessive compulsive disorder defines as a features of unreasonable thoughts and fears that leads to do repetitive behavior.

  • It is mainly characterized by two terms:
  • Obsession means unreasonable thoughts & fear
  • Compulsion means repetitive behavior
  • They both interfere with the daily activities cause distress.
  • Thus person may try to ignore obsessions but that only increase your stress and anxiety ultimately you perform compulsive acts

OCD CYCLE (obsessive compulsive disorder)

ANXIETY

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OBSESSION

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COMPULSION

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REINFORCEMENT

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

OBSESSION COMPULSION REINFORCEMENT

Obsession symptoms :-

  • Fear of contamination
  • Aggressive to your self or to others
  • Unwanted aggressive thoughts
  • Intense stress
  • Avoidance of situations
  • Shaking hands
  • Feel uncomfortable

Compulsive symptoms:-

  • Washing and cleaning
  • Checking
  • Counting
  • Silently repeating prayer
  • Checking doors repeatedly to make sure they are locked

EPIDEMIOLOGY:-

  • 80% cases are before 18 years
  • Higher in males than females
  • It is common in latin america, Africa & Asia

Severity varies :-

  • Usually begins in teens or young adults
  • Symptoms usually begin it tends to severe through out life
  • It is considered as life long disorder
  • OCD thoughts are simply excessive varies some about real problems in your real life
  • Obsession and compulsions affect the quality of life .

Causes :- major causes are formed :-

Biology :- OCD may result due to any changes in the body or brain dysfunction

Genetics :- OCD may have genetic component but specific genes have yet to be

identified.

Environment :-  some environmental factor infections may leads to OCD

Risk factors :-

  • Family history
  • Stressful life events
  • Other mental disorders

Types :-

Although there are infinite forms of OCD this may be categorized in to 5 categories :-

  • Checking :- need to check the compulsion
  • Mental contamination:- main OCD type in this type wash hands repeatedly
  • Symmetry :- compulsions feel discomfort
  • Intensive thoughts:- generally suffers with obsessional thoughts that are repetitive
  • Hoarding :- inability to discard useless commonly referred as hoarding

 

Pathophysiology:-

  • Cause is unknown
  • Low levels of serotonin can cause OCD symptoms.

   Basal ganglia dysfunction :- Parkinsonism disease associated.

 

STIMULUS                                                                                                                STIMULUS   

(internal or external)                                                                              (internal or external) 

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OBSESSION                                                                                                                       ANXIETY

mark 1                                                                                                                                     mark 1

TEMPORARY RELIEF                                                                                                   COMPULSION

 

Complications :-

  • Health issues such as contact dermatitis frequent hand washing.
  • Inability to attend social activities.
  • Trouble in relationships
  • Poor quality of life
  • Sucidal thoughts and behaviour .

 

Treatment:-

  1. Pharmacotherapy :- treated with drugs such as (SSRI’s) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
  1. Fluoxetine, fluoxamine, sertraline.
  2. Cognitive behavior therapy
  3. Psycho surgery
  4. Deep brain stimulation.

PREPARED BY 

PRAVEENA

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