How Myocardial Infarction occurs

Myocardial Infarction

     In simpler terms it is commonly known as Heart attack. Arteries are the blood vessels which supplies oxygen rich blood to all the organs through out the body. Coronary arteries supply blood to muscular tissue of heart i.e., myocardium.  Blockage of coronary arteries occurs due to fats causes obstruction to the blood flow leading to insufficient supply of blood and oxygen to myocardium (heart muscle tissue). This causes death of Myocardium,so called Myocardial Infarction.

How is it caused

  • Fats like Low density Lipoproteins (bad cholesterol),trans fat and saturated fats  blocks the coronary arteries leading to Infarction(death of tissue).
  • These Fats enter the blood stream and arteries due to high pressure exerted by blood onto plaques deposited on the the walls of arteries. 
  • Plaques are the hardened fatty depositions on the walls of blood vessels particularly arteries which leads to Atherosclerosis. 
  • This deposition causes inflammation of endothelial lining of inner wall of blood vessels.
  • Narrowing of lumen (middle space inside blood vessel) occurs due to the inflammation of blood vessel and plaque deposition.
  • Decreased volume causes decreased blood flow but with increased pressure, this pressure breaks a part of the calcified plaque and enter the blood stream through the arteries.
  • Fat enters into blood stream and forms blood clots sometimes.
  • Decreased oxygen supply to heart also causes heart attack.

Risk factors

  • High blood pressure – Increases the chances of fat entry into blood causing blockade of arteries.
  • High cholesterol – Through diet may enhances the chance of accumulating bad cholesterol in the body.If it is synthesized inside the body in liver, less chances of formation of  LDL. 
  • Stress – Stress increases the chances of heart attack due to the release of free radicals.
  • High triglycerides – A type of fats enhances the chance of heart attacks more.
  • Diabetes mellitus – High glucose levels in blood will damage the blood vessels (coronary arteries) causing Coronary Artery Disease(CAD).
  • Obesity –  The major problem for fat deposition and reason for all the problems like Diabetes, high Blood Pressure, High cholesterol etc.,
  • Age – As age passes on, cells also start  senescence (aging of cells) and increases the risk of heart attack particularly males( at 45 years) than females( at 55 years). 
  • Family History – As a hereditary condition, if the parents or grand parents affected, then there is a more chance of getting heart attack. 

Symptoms

  • Heavy pressure and pain in Chest  and pain between ribs and arms.
  • Pain in back, neck and jaw bone.
  • Fast hear rate/palpitations.
  • Nausea and Vomiting.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Dizziness and weakness.
  • Difficulty in digestion and fullness of stomach.
  • Sweating more due to anxiety.

Diagnosis

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) monitors the heart rhythm and rate, thereby evaluating the  damage occurred to the  heart muscle.
  • Serum tests, blood tests either identifies the cardiac enzymes or sometimes the markers on the tissue, thereby analyzing the infarction (tissue damage) of myocardium.
  • Radionuclide imaging, detects the blood flow to the heart with the help of Radio-isotopes
  • Echo cardiogram, analyzes the pumping  capacity of heart with the Echo sounds fro it.
  • Cardiac Catheterization, visualizes the blocked artery to determine the treatment for blockage.  

Treatment

  • ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) Inhibitors are used to reduce the blood pressure thereby reducing the tension on heart.
  • Nitroglycerin relaxes arteries including coronary arteries of heart thereby blood can flow smoothly and easily without any pressure on the heart.
  • Aspirin reduces pain and also used to remove blood clots inside the blood vessels and improves the blood flow through the arteries. 
  • Beta blockers lowers the heart rate and reduces the pressure on heart and can be used to treat myocardial infarction.
  • Thrombolytic drugs like Tissue plasminogen activator, Alteplase, Urokinase, streptokinase etc., used to break the clots inside the blood vessels.
  • Anti platelet drugs like Clopidogrel prevents the formation of blood clots.

Natural remedies

  • Regular exercise(less pressure), Yoga and meditation will reduces stress.
  • Take low cholesterol diet and take fish oils, rich in High density Lipoproteins.
  • Reduce carbohydrate intake and increase the fiber rich components in your diet.
  • Green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fruits has to be supplemented instead of  junk and oily fried food.
  • Vitamin rich food and anti oxidant food has to be taken through the diet.
  • Garlic is the best in reducing cholesterol level in the blood.
  • Turmeric and green tea are also the best remedies in reducing heart attack.


  Our diet should contain light fiber and vitamin rich food to keep us delighted throughout the day. Regular exercise keeps us active and relaxed, but do not stress your muscle and heart with difficult exercise. Keep healthy and be safe.  













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