MINOXIDIL is one of the used to treat hypertension. Hypertension is the abnormal elevated blood pressure, it may also refer to the increased pressure in any blood vessel, such as pulmonary or portal hypertension. However it is usually refers to an elevated systemic arterial blood pressure.


               Hypertension is not a disease but it is an physical finding. The normal blood pressure of an human is 120/80 mm of hg. where 120 is systolic pressure and 80 id diastolic pressure. The blood pressure of an hypertensive patient may be more than 140/90 mm of hg. Hypertension may occur in the older and particularly in the elder, because of the age above 50 increased cardiovascular complications are more strongly associated.

 Blood pressure can be determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance.

                BP= CO * PR

CARDIAC OUTPUT is determined by heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV).

             CO= SV * HR

                  The BP varies throughout the day in any individual and is affected by physical activity, emotional upset and other factors.


 Hypertension is the major risk factor for the atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications such as (CHF) congestive heart failure, (MI) Myocardial infarction, and angina.

         When there is an decreased blood pressure in the blood vessel, it activates the enzyme renin, which further release the angiotensinogen. The angiotensinogen release angiotensin-1, this in presence of angiotensin converting enzyme gets converted into angiotensin-2 and release the aldosterone (Harmone). The aldosterone is helpful for the reabsorption of the sodium and water into blood vessel. Thus increases the blood pressure. whenever further prolongation of these reabsorption leads to the hypertension.


 The drugs used to lower the blood pressure in an blood vessel leads to decreased in the elevated blood pressure.

 Example:  verapamil, diltiazem

      Diuretics: Furosemide, Indopamide

      Arterial dilator: Minoxidil

      Areterio- venal dilator– Sodium Nitroprusside.


                 Minoxidil is commonly used as an arterial dilator in many of the cardiovascular diseases like the Congestive heart failure, Myocardial Infraction etc

 It may be given in the condition of vasoconstriction to get relax the blood vessel and cause the vasodilation and decrease the blood pressure as well blood volume.

 ADVERSE EFFECTS: The excess use of minoxidil causes the major side effects like hypertrichosis.

HYPERTRICHOSIS: This is a disorder in which the excess hair growth in the body seems to person very ugly. It was mainly occured due to thee discontinue of drug minoxidil.

 The most commonly occurred one is the congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa. The condition is characterized by excessive hair growth on child at birth.

      Most of the body is covered with lanugo hair, which is an unpigmented fine, softy and silky hair that covers the foetus which is usually shed at 8 months which are replaced with fine vellus hair and terminal scalp hair in preparation for birth.

      Congenital hypertrichosis terminals involves all over the body hairgrowth but the hair growth is fully pigmented. Terminal hair along with the condition is almost always associated with gingival hyperplasia.


              The pathophysiology varies depending on the etiology. Genetic abnormalities underlie several types of hypertrichosis and the pathogenesis of increased hair growth is unknown.


              On histopathology, hypertrichosis appear as an increased number of terminal or vellus hairs, depending on the etiology of hypertrichosis.

ETIOLOGY: Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a feature of several rare inherited syndrome in which genetic errors results in dysfunction of proteins involved in development of hair follicle. There is some evidence to support that exposure to medication such as minoxidil. Antibiotics like streptomycin, Anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, Antiseptic agents, chelators.


 Laser hair removal: Diode laser, Alexanderite laser, depilatory creams.

 Electrolysis are used to remove unwanted hair depilatory creams like calcium thioglycolate and barium sulfate though they may irritate the skin.


Major diagnosis is hirsutism, pattern of terminal hair growth in women within androgen dependent sights. Hirsutism is caused by increased androgen and associated with other signs of androgen excess. 

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