MEASLES is a viral infection that serious for small children but is easily preventable by vaccine. The disease spreads through the air by respiratory droplets produced from coughing or sneezing. Measles is a highly infectious illness caused by rubeola virus.
Vaccination prevents many cases of measles around the world. Nearly 2.6 million people who have not taken vaccine die with measles every year.
Scientists have identified 21 strains of measles virus. There is no specific treatment for this measles the only option is to take vaccines. Pregnant women should not take this measles vaccine. This measles is a viral disease which can be spread easily and rapidly. Measles is a condition normally passes without treatment within 7-10 days. After a bout of measles , a person gains immunity for rest of their life.
SYMPTOMS OF MEASLES INCLUDE:
Infection by respiratory incubation period (6-19 days). Prodromal illness occur 1-3 days before rash.
As natural antibody develops, the maculopapular rash appear, spreading from face to extremities. Generalized lymphadenopathy and diarrhea are common. Complications more common in order children and adults, include otitis media, bacterial pneumonia, transient hepatitis, pancreatitis, clinical encephalitis. Rare late complication is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which occur up to 7 year after infection.
- Runny nose
- Dry hacking cough
- Conjunctivitis or swollen eye lids and inflamed eyes
- Watery eyes
- Photo-phobia or sensitivity to light
- koplik’s spots: very small grayish white spots with bluish-white centers in mouth, inside cheeks, and throat
- Body pains
- Reddish brown rash
- Fever is also observed
COMPLICATIONS MAY INCLUDE:
- Eye infection
- Respiratory tract infections (Laryngitis and bronchitis)
- Difficulty to breath
- Ear infection
- Febrile seizures
Patients with week immune system are more susceptible to bacterial pneumonia, Hepatitis, Thrombocytopenia may also occur
- Heart complications
- subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
- Measels during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, early delivery, low birth weight.
TYPES OF MEASLES :
- Measles the standard form caused by rubeola virus
- Rubella or german measles caused by rubella virus
WHO has set objective of eradicating measles globally using the live attenuated vaccine. However, vaccination of more than 95% of population is reduced to prevent outbreakss. Natural illness produce life-long immunity.
DIAGNOSIS OF MEASLES :
Detection of antibody ( Serum Immunogobulin Ig M, Salivary IgM)
Measles is a severe disease in malnourished, vitamin deficient/ Immunocompressed in whom the typical rash may be missing and persistent infection with a gaint cell pneumonitis or encephalitis may occur. In Tuberculosis infection measles suppress cell mediated immunity. Measles does not cause congenital malformation but may be more severe in pregnant women. Mortality is been observed at the extremes of age, average 1:1000 in developed countries and up to 1:4 in developing countries.
Death usually results from a bacterial super infection, occurring as complication of measles, most often pneumonia, diarrhea, gangrenous stomatitis. Death may also result from complication of measles encephalitis.
MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF MEASLES:
- Normal immunoglobulin attenuate disease in immunocompromised, non-immune pregnant women, but must be given with 6 days of exposure.
- Vaccination can be used in outbreak and vitamin a may improve outcome n uncomplicated disease.
- Antibiotic therapy is reserved for bacterial complication.
All children aged 12-15 months should receive measles vaccination ( as combined measles, mumps and rubella MMR, a live attenuated vaccine) and further MMR dose at age 4 years.
HOW DOES A MEASLES INFECTION DEVELOPS:
As the virus enters into the body it multiplies in the back of the throat, lungs, and the lymphatic system then later infects and replicate in the urinary tract, eyes, blood vessels, and central nervous system
The virus takes 1-3 weeks to establish itself, but symptoms appear between 9 and 11 days after initial infection. The person who has not taken vaccination for measles when they get exposed to the infected droplets or are in close physical contact with infected person then this symptoms of measles are also seen in them and they get infected with measles.
Measles can be prevented with MMR (Measles-Mumps-Rubella) vaccine. This vaccine protects against three diseases measles, mumps, rubella.
This measles can be given as standalone vaccine called as measles vaccine.
MR( Measles-Rubella) vaccine measles rubella vaccine.
MMRV (Mumps Measles Rubella and Varicella).
CDC(Centers for disease control) recommends children get 2 doses of MMR vaccine , starting with first dose at 12 to 15 months of age and second dose at 4 to 6 years of age . Teens and adult should also be up to date on their MMR vaccination.
MMR vaccine is safe and effective. Two doses of this vaccine is 97% effective at preventing measles, one dose is 93 % effective.
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MEASLES VACCINE:
The adverse effects associated with the MMR vaccine include fever, rash, injection site pain and rare cases red or purple discoloration on skin known as thrombocytopenic purpura or seizures related to fever.
MEASLES VACCINE IS CONTRAINDICATED IN
- HIV infected kids mostly receive measles vaccines if their CD4+ lymphocyte count is greater than 15%.
Thanks for reading…….. “BE HEALTHY”
M KEERTHI KUMARI