haemorrhoids (piles)

HOW INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS OCCURS (PILES)

HOW INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS OCCURS (PILES)       

Hemorrhoids are also called as piles. It is a condition where the veins in the anus and lower rectum gets swollen and dilated. The swollen and inflamed veins in the anus and rectum cause discomfort and bleeding. These hemorrhoids are usually caused by straining during bowel moments, pregnancy and obesity.

haemorrhoids (piles)

Depending on the location, these hemorrhoids are classified into 2 types

  • Internal hemorrhoids.
  • External hemorrhoids

This classification is done depending upon whether the hemorrhoid is inside the rectum or below the skin, around the anus.

These hemorrhoids are very common. Around 3 out of 4 adults may  have these hemorrhoids at some point of the time.

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF HAEMORRHOIDS?

EXTERNAL HAEMORRHOIDS:

These are the most common uncomfortable type of hemorrhoids found beneath the skin surrounding the anus.

Swollen hemorrhoids lead to pain and itching in and around the affected area which slowly begin to bleed and form clots. These hemorrhoids with blood clots suddenly cause severe pain. These lumps dissolve leaving a skin tag behind which becomes itchy and irritated. A hemorrhoid which is thrombosed (clot)looks blue or purple in color and bleed more. If the pain persists consult your doctor for removing the clot.

WHAT IS INTERNAL HAEMORRHOID?

These internal hemorrhoids will develop in internal lining of rectum which are painless and not obvious unless enlarged. They bleed and we might spot blood stains on the toilet paper. Internal hemorrhoids may shift out of place and extend outside the anus which is painful to the sensitive areas.

haemorrhoids

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HAEMORRHOIDS:

  • Bleeding without any pain while passing stools
  • Swelling around the anus
  • Discomfort or pain in the anal area.
  • Presence of painful or sensitive lump near the anus
  • Itching in the anal area.

bleeding

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF HEMORRHOIDS?

Pressure in the veins, around the anus cause them to bulge leading to hemorrhoids. This may be due to:

  • Repeated episodes of diarrhea or constipation
  • Obesity
  • Low fiber diet
  • Excess straining during passing stools
  • Pregnancy
  • Long periods of sitting on toilet seat
  • Thinning of skin due to ageing.

maternal deaths                                                                                                  obesity

WHO IS AT RISK OF HAEMORRHOIDS?

  • Family history
  • Strained bowel moments
  • Experience postural pressure due to sitting for longer time on toilet seat

COMPLICATIONS:

  • Anaemia due to blood loss for a long time.
  • Strangulated hemorrhoid-Stopping the blood supply in internal hemorrhoid can lead to extremely painful situations.
  • Blood clot

HOW  HAEMORRHOIDS ARE DIAGNOISED?

  • Physical examination
  • Visual or scopic inspection
  • Based on the medical history of the patient.

HOW ARE HAEMORRHOID TREATED?

 Based on the severity of hemorrhoids the treatment is been given.

 Generally these hemorrhoids with mild bleeding  and pain are treated with creams and ointments.

Haemorrhoidectomy :  Removal of hemorrhoids is medically called to be as haemorrhoidectomy which is performed by either surgical haemorrhoidectomy, laser haemorrhoidectomy, stapled haemorrhoidectomy, infrared or electrical coagulation.

  • SURGICAL HAEMORROIDECTOMY:

 In this procedure the hemorrhoid is removed surgically through incision. In some cases rubber band ligation is also performed. For this surgical haemorroidectomy local anesthesia is given to numb the pain.

  • LASER HAEMORRHOIDECTOMY:

 This is a technique where the swollen hemorrhoids are burnt medically. The surgeon uses a narrow beam of laser which focus on hemorrhoid only and not the adjacent tissues so the get damaged.

  • STAPLED HAEMORRHOIDECTOMY:

 In this process the blood supply to hemorrhoid is been stopped so that the swollen hemorrhoid dies due to lack of blood supply.

  • INFRARED OR ELECTRICAL COAGULATION:

This is similar to stapled heat form here the infrared beam create scar tissue and by that stops the blood supply to the hemorrhoid.

WHAT ARE THE RISKS IN HAEMORRHOIDECTOMY?

 This procedure is safe performed in sterile conditions by expert surgeon. The possible risks are:

  • Fever or infection
  • Reaction to anesthesia
  • Bleeding
  • Trouble during peeing due to muscle spasm
  • Damage to anal sphincter

PREVENTION OF HEMORRHOIDS:

The most effective way to prevent and manage these hemorrhoids are to avoid hard stools. Some precautions to prevent the hemorrhoids are :

  • Eating high-fiber diet.
  • Exercise regularly
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Don’t strain
  • Avoid consumption of alcohol and caffeine to avoid constipation

Vegetables

                                    Thanks for reading……..

Prepared by

M KEERTHI KUMARI

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