HOW GLAUCOMA HAPPENS AND TYPES OF GLAUCOMA
Glaucoma is a disease of the eyes where the fluid pressure within eye rises. When left untreated the patient lose vision. This is very common in older adults and cause damage to optic nerve. This glaucoma has been called silent thief of sight. The glaucoma mainly divided into two types (open-angle and closed angle). Main risk factors of glaucoma are age and thyroid problems. symptoms include eye pain and treatment include surgery and medications.
Glaucoma is the increase in pressure within eye which cause damage to the optic nerve. Persistently raised intraocular pressure may damage the optic nerve due to mechanical compression and ischemia.
There is small space in front of eye called anterior chamber . Clear liquid flows in and out of anterior chamber, this fluid nourishes and bathes nearby tissues. The fluid drains slowly out of eye which lead to fluid build-up and pressure inside the eye rises.
The pressure must be controlled, the optic nerve and other parts of eye may become damaged, leading to loss of vision. This disease usually affects both eyes although one may be more severely affected than the other.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF GLAUCOMA?
Glaucoma causes are divided into two categories:
Primary glaucoma- Cause unknown
Secondary glaucoma- tumor, diabetes and advanced cataract .
There are many risk factors for the glaucoma:
- Old age
- Eye injuries
- Eye surgery
- The patients who use corticosteroids for long time they have risk of developing several different conditions.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF GLAUCOMA?
There are two main types of glaucoma:
Closed angle glaucoma( Acute angle- closure glaucoma)
Open angle glaucoma ( chronic glaucoma)
CLOSED ANGLE GLAUCOMA:
This come suddenly the patient commonly have pain and vision loss.
The symptoms of pain and discomfort make the sufferer seek medical help, resulting in prompt treatment usually prevent permanent damage from occurring.
The closed angle glaucoma is divided into two types
- Acute closed angle glaucoma: The intraocular pressure suddenly rising with symptoms (severe pain, photophobia, lacrimation and vision loss)
- Chronic closed angle glaucoma: The intraocular pressure rises gradually without symptoms.
PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA:
This progress very slowly no symptoms are felt by patient even the slight loss of vision cannot be noticed. The low tension glaucoma is rarer form And pigmentary glaucoma develop during early or middle adult hood. The pigment cells arise from iris when these build up with in the eye drains the fluid which may lead in rise of eye pressure.
This occurs due to abnormal development of anterior chamber, mainly comes from family members or maternal infection with rubella in early pregnancy.
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF GLAUCOMA?
The symptoms of both the types of glaucoma are different
SYMPTOMS OF PRIMARY OPEN -ANGLE GLAUCOMA:
- Peripheral vision gradually lost affect both eyes
- The patient have tunnel vision
SYMPTOMS OF CLOSED ANGLE GLAUCOMA:
- Eye pain
- Blurred vision
- Red eyes
- Sudden unexpected vision problems.
TREATMENT FOR GLAUCOMA:
The treatment helps in improving flow of fluid from eye which help in reducing the pressure
- Prostaglandin analogues
- Carbonic anhyrase inhibitors
- Cholinergic agents
- Beta blockers
SURGERY FOR GLAUCOMA:
The main aim of surgery is to reduce the pressure in the eye. The surgery’s include:
- TRABECULOPLASTY: A laser beam is been used to unblock the clogged drainage canals.
- FILTERING SURGERY( VISCOCANSLOSTOMY)
A laser surgery where the channels in the eye are opened to improve fluid drainage.
- DRAINAGE IMPLANT ( AQUEOUS SHUNT IMPLANT)
This option is sometimes used for children. In this procedure a small silicone tube is inserted into the eye to help to drain out fluids better.
For acute angle closure glaucoma a laser procedure is usually carried out that creates a tiny hole in iris, which allows fluid to pass into trabecular meshwork this procedure is called iridotomy.
By identifying the early means this glaucoma can be treated more effectively and vision loss is minimized.
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