CONJUNCTIVITIS

HOW DOES CONJUNCTIVITIS (PINK EYE) OCCUR, SYMPTOMS

HOW DOES CONJUNCTIVITIS (PINK EYE) OCCUR, SYMPTOMS

      The conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva which is the thin filmy membrane that cover the inside of eye lids and sclera. This conjunctivitis is most commonly referred to as pink eye. The conjunctiva contains tiny blood vessels and which produce mucous to coat and lubricate the surface of eye. When there is any inflammation in these blood vessels they become larger this may occur to one eye or to both the eyes.

CONJUNCTIVITIS

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CONJUNCTIVITIS :

          Rate of disease is related to underlying cause which varies by age and time of year. Acute conjunctivitis is mostly found in infants, school-age children . The most common cause of infectious conjunctivitis is viral conjunctivitis.

          The estimation that acute conjunctivitis affects 6 million people annually in US. Seasonal trends have been observed for occurrence of different  forms of conjunctivitis in months of December to April, viral conjunctivitis is mostly observed in summer season and allergic conjunctivitis prevalent throughout spring and summer seasons.  

ETIOLOGY FOR CONJUNCTIVITIS:

      Inflammation occur by some of infectious agents such as bacteria or virus. and even by some of the environmental irritants. This is extremely contagious and spread by contact with eye secretions from the infected person.

          Virus , including kind that cause cold, bacterial irritants such as shampoos, dirt, smoke etc cause conjunctivitis. Reaction to eye drops can also cause conjunctivitis, allergic reaction fungi, amoebas and some parasites.

Conjunctivitis may sometimes results from STD’s (sexually transmitted disease) such as gonorrhea which can bring out dangerous bacterial conjunctivitis.  

Chlamydia can cause conjunctivitis in adults.

SYMPTOMS OF CONJUNCTIVITIS:

  • Increased tearing
  • soreness of eye
  • foreign body sensation
  • itchiness of eye
  • green or white discharge from eye
  • thick and yellow discharge crusts over eyelashes
  • blurred vision due to mucous
  • excess mucous production
  • swollen conjunctiva
  • burning eyes
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • crusting of eye lashes in morning.

HOW DOES CONJUNCTIVITIS OCCUR?

      This conjunctivitis can develop through exposure to coughing or sneezing with respiratory tract infection. Viral conjunctivitis occur as the virus spreads along body’s mucous membrane connecting to lungs, throat, nose, tear ducts and conjunctiva.

TYPES OF CONJUNCTIVITIS:

 Infections – Bacterial (Acute and chronic) Example: chlamydia, nesseria gonorrhoea, staphylococcus species. this usually occur one eye but show in both pus and mucus is been observed.

Viral: This is most common and most contagious which tend to start from one eye  where they cause watery discharge from eyes, we may observe swolen lymph node under the jaw bone or near the ear.

  Non-Infections- Allergic toxins, chemicals, foreign, Trauma, Nioplasm.  The allergic type produce  itching, tearing, and redness in both the eyes and we also mayy observe runny nose.

Opthalamia neonatorum: this is severe form which affects newborns.

Gaint papillary: this is due to the long term use of contacts or artificial eye. 

VIRAL AND BACTERIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS:

Most common viral cause is adenovirus(enterovirus, herpes simplex virus) . Both these viral and bacterial conjunctivitis occur with some respiratory infection such as sore throat, cold. Wearing the contact lenses which are not been cleaned properly may cause this conjunctivitis.

ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS:

 This affects both the eyes and is because of any allergy causing agent  such as pollen . In response to those allergens our body produces antibody IG -E which triggers mast cells in mucous lining of eye

RISK FACTORS:

  • Exposure to allergens
  • Contact with infected person
  • Using of contact lens

PREVENTION:

  • Do not touch eyes with your hands
  • Wash hand often
  • Use clean towel
  • Do not use eye cosmetics

 In new born’s eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in birth canal this may cause opthamia neonatorum in rare cases.

DIAGNOSIS OF CONJUNCTIVITIS:

Sample of liquid is drained from eye and cultured.

The conjunctivitis is diagnosed through comprehensive eye examination. Testing, with special emphasis on conjunctiva and surrounded tissues which may include:

  • Patient history for determining symptoms
  • Visual acuity measurements for determining vision
  • Evaluation of conjunctiva and external eye tissue
  • Evaluation of inner structures of eye
  • Supplemental testing, by taking cultures or smears of conjunctival tissue.

TREATMENT OF CONJUNCTIVITIS:

Antibiotics

Anti histamines

Corticosteroids

FOR VIRUSES: This type of conjunctivitis often caused from common cold. Antibiotics will not help anything caused in this situation.

BACTERIA: This occurs mostly those related to STDs Antibiotics are given in form of eyedrops, ointments, pills.

IRRITANTS: We must use water to wash the substance from eye for at least 5 min.

ALLERGIES: Antihistamines are taken through oral or drops.

HOW CAN WE RELIEVE SYMPTOMS  OF PINK EYE OR CONJUNCTIVITIS?

*We must keep the eyes clean: Wash the discharge from the eye several times using fresh cotton ball or paper towel.

*Don’t touch or rub the infected eye

*Don’t share or wear contact lenses, eye drops

*Use warm compress, such as wash cloth soaked in warm water.

*Don’t put patch over the eye

*Protect eyes from dirt and other irritants.

 

PREPARED BY

M KEERTHI KUMARI

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