How does Cancers occur

What is a cell

         The cell is a structural and functional unit of living organisms.A human body is macde up of a millions of cells which forms tissues,organs,organ systems and finally an organism.
                            


      As we grow, our cells undergoes cell division and multiplication and increases their number and size of the cells.Normal cell division by mitosis (equational division)  and meiosis(reduction division) causes growth of cells and the organism.

What is Cancer

     An Abnormal growth due to uncontrolled division of cells leads to a condition called cancer.Itmay leads to development of Tumours. Millions of people have been suffering from different types of cancers world-wide causing deaths. 
        Dont get confused with hypertrophy and hyperplasia which is a temporary or reversible increase in the size and number of cells.These terms related to an immune reaction through Inflammation. But cancer cells/tumours will divide abnormally infecting the adjacent cells and spreads throught the organism.
      

Do all the Tumours Dangerous

                 Certainly not. Tumours are majorly two kinds.Benign and Malignant Tumours.

 A) Benign Tumour – Non-cancerous harmless tumours which cannot spread but may cause pain.Example   Adenomas-  Tumours of epithelial tissue,Uterine Fibroids etc.              

B) Malignant tumour – Cancerous harmful tumours which have the ability to spread the cancer to healthy cells by a process called Metastasis (through blood or lymph). Malignant cells can be able to synthesize new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to the abnormally divided cells by a process called Angiogenesis.                                                                                             Example    Carcinoma , Leukemia etc.,

Causes of cancer

             Different factors like Mutation,Carcinogens,Hereditary,Lifestyle habits are responsible in the development of cancers.
1. Mutations Gene changes i.e.,alterations in the structure of a gene is called Mutation. Due to this cells undergoes abnormal and uncontrolled cell division causing cancers.
2. Carcinogens These are the substances which promotes cancer growth by damaging the DNA.When exposed to Arsenic,Tobacco,Asbestos,X-rays,Gamma rays,UV-radiations etc.,our cells produces free radicals(monovalent oxygen or hydroxyl ions)which are electron deficient,tries to steal electrons from other molecules,damaging the proteins and DNA of the cells.
3. Hereditary Cancer causing mutated genes may get inherited from parental genes through heriditary. For example mutations in the genes of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are at 75% risk of breast and ovarian cancers.
4.Viral infections Cancer also caused by different viral infections caused by Epstein barr-virus, Hepatitis virus, Human papilloma virus etc.,

                       

  Types of cancers

            More than 200 different types of cancers have been identified in different cases.
1.Carcinoma – cancer of skin,epithelial and squamous tissues.
2. Sarcoma – cancer of connective tissue like bone,cartilage,muscle etc.,
3. Leukemia – cancer of blood cells and tissues like bone-marrow.
4. Hodgkins lymphoma – cancer of lymphocytes(immune cells of WBC).
5. Melanoma – cancer of skin.
6.Lung cancer – cancer of lungs(alveoli cancer).
           Some  others like prostate cancer,breast cancer, brain cancer,colon cancer,bladder cancer etc., affecting different parts of any organism.    

Symptoms   

          Cancers can be identified  basedon the type the of cancer and condition of the patient.A few symptoms like 
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia(sleeplessness)
  • Fatigue
  • Skin changes
  • Lumps in skin
  • White spots on skin
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge etc., 

Diagnosis

        Early stage of cancer can be diagnosed by the following techniques.
1. Lab tests – Presence of high or low levels of certain abnormal substances in blood/urine/body fluids may help the doctors to detect the signs of cancer. 
2. Imaging techniques like CT scans,MRI Scans,Ultrasound scans,Endoscopy,X-ray technique, nucleur scan are used to detect cancers.
3. Biopsy – Removal of tumours through inscission by surgery.

Treatment

1. Surgery – Removal of tumours by bsurgery
2. Radiation therapy – Use of Ionising radiations to kill cancers.
3. Chemotherapy – Drugs like Antimetabolites(Methotrexate) , Alkylating agents (cisplatin),
                                   Alkaloids(Vincristine,Vinblastine) etc.,

Natural remedies

            The presence of Antioxidant rich food which can fight against free radicals ,phenols, Anthocyanins, Flavanois, Polyphenols,Tannins have to be supplemented to control the growth of cancer cells.
1. Probiotic foods
2. Fresh and raw juices,Ripe banana
3. Vitamin-C supplements
4. Wheat grass and Tomatoes
5. Broccoli
6. Green tea
7. Ginger
8. Garlic
9. Blue berries
10. Spinach
11. Pomegranate
12. Walnuts
13. Grapes etc.,
     


          The Carcinogens, Modren lifestyle,Food habits are the major dreadful reasons for cancers. Follow Healthy lifestyle and food habits to lead a healthy and happy life. 


















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