DEPRESSION

HOW DEPRESSION AFFECTS YOU AND TREATMENT

HOW DEPRESSION AFFECTS YOU AND TREATMENT

       Depression is an extremely common psychiatric condition which is characterized by severe and prolonged feelings of sadness, dejection and hopelessness.

          Depression is a brain disorder that affects whole body behavior and mood. The way one thinks and way the body feels. Depression disorders affect one is four women and one in ten men have a serious episode of depression during their life time. Depression is one of the leading cause of disability worldwide.

DEPRESSION

         Depression is a mental health disorder. It is a mood disorder which has low mood and feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Depression is a persistent problem not a passing one the average length of a depressive episode is 6-8 months.

 NATURE OF DEPRESSION:

          Depression is the most common of the effective disorders defined as disorders of mood rather than disturbances of thought or cognition.

It may ranges from very mild condition bordering on normality to severe (psychotic) depression accompanied by hallucinations and delusions.

* Worldwide depression is a major cause of disability and premature death.

* In addition to the significant suicide risk. Depressed individuals are more likely to die from other causes such as heart diseases or cancer.

 The symptoms of depression include emotional and biological:

EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS:

* Misery, apathy and pessimism

* Low self- esteem; feeling of guilt, inadequacy and ugliness

* Indecisiveness, loss of motivation.

 BIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS:

* Retardation of thought and action

* Loss of libido

* sleep disturbance and loss of appetite

TYPE OF DEPRESSION:

     Sometimes depression is due to bad event like the death of loved one or from stress. Some types of depression are:

  1. Major depression
  2. Dysthymic disorders
  3. Bipolar disorder
  4. Postnatal depression ( PND) also called as postpartum depression
  5. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

 MAJOR DEPRESSION:  This is moderate to severe episode lasting two or more weeks

These is trouble sleep lose interest difficulty on concentrating, feel worthless and hopeless or be preoccupied with death or suicide.

  DYSTHYMIC DISORDER: Begins slowly and may not be able to pinpoint when the depression started people with dysthmia also experience major depressive episodes at some time in their lives.

BIPOLAR DISORDER: It Is a mental illness that can toss a person between terrible laws and manic highs. The mood is dramatic and rapid. But is gradual in most cases . Bipolar disorder is called manic- depression where the person is optimistic and has exaggerated feelings of well being minds are overactive. The person feels despairing and may contemplate suicide.

POST PARTUM/ POST NATAL DEPRESSION (PND):

         The depression begins during the first year of parenthood and is mild to severe, contributing factors include the hormonal disturbances in pregnancy , birth and lactation , physical exhaustion from broken sleep, loss of independence, financial pressures and changed relationships with partners family and friends.

SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD):

  Depression is more common in the winter months as the brain in affected by sunlight exposure.

* The light- hitting the back of eye (retina) Stimulates the brain to release mood enhancing chemicals.

* The characteristics of SAD are eating more, gaining weight, excessive sleeping and withdrawing from people. Usually a person with SAD comes out of ” Hibernation” in the spring.”

 THEORIES OF DEPRESSION:

 The monoamine theory:

The  monoamine hypothesis is the biochemical theory , proposed by schildkraut in 1965, which states that depression is caused by functional deficit of monoamine transmitters at  certain sites in the brain.

        The decreased levels of noradrenaline and 5- Hydroxytryptamine (5- HT) is being the key mediator. By studying the monoamine metabolism in depressed patients by measuring the changes in number of monoamine receptors in post-martem brain tissue.

Neuro endocrine mechanisms:

              Hypothalamic neurons controlling pituitary function receive nonadrenergic and 5-HT inputs which control the discharge of these cells. Hypothalamic cells  will release ” Corticotrophin- releasing hormone ” (CRH) which stimulates the  pituitary cells to secrete adreno corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) leading in turn to cortisol secretion.

* The plasma cortisol concentration is high in depressed patients.

* Corticotrophin – releasing hormone is widely distributed in the brain and has behavior effects that are distinct from its endocrine functions. CRH concentrations in brain and cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients are increased.

* Therefore CRH hyperfusion as well as monoamine hypofunction may associate with depression.

 EPIDEMIOLOGY of depression: 

The women are 70% more likely than men to experience depression during their life

* Nearly 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression.

 * The age group 15-44 major depression is the leading cause of disability in US. The symptoms of depression become more severe with age.

* About 30% of people with depressive illness attempt suicide.

* In 2007, suicide was the tenth leading cause of death in the US 50-60% of individuals with a lifetime history of major depression have a history of one or more anxiety disorder.

ETIOLOGY: 

Evidence suggested that there is a lack of (NA) nor adrenergic activity either due to NA depletion or lack of NA receptors in the brain.

* The deficiency of nor adrenaline and 5- Hydroxy tryptamine caused the depression.

FROM DRUG TREATMENT VIEW, DEPRESSION IS CLASSIFIED INTO:

  1. REACTIVE DEPRESSION : ( Exogenous)

 It is characterized by well defined precipitating stress such as loss in individuals adverse effects of drugs in same disease reactive depression in self limiting and unresponsive to antidepressant drugs.

  1. ENDOGENOUS DEPRESSION:

With the definite onset of depression symptoms without any external events. This is caused by neuro chemical imbalance symptoms are severe and of reactive depression thus it needs lifelong therapy. It comes at age of age of 40 years.

 SYMPTOMS:  Depression characterized by number of common symptoms:

*  Persistent sad, anxious, empty mood, feeling of hopeless

*  Person feels guilt , worthlessness and helplessness.

*  Lack of interest, Insomnia, early morning awaking and oversleeping are all common.

* Loss of appetite and weight loss

* Decreased energy, fatigue, constant feeling of being slowed down.

 * Restlessness and irritability

 * Difficulty in concentrating, remembering and trouble making decisions.

 DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION:

 The first step to treat depression is a physical examination by a physician.

* Some viral infections cause the same symptoms as depression and the physician must rule out these possibilities through examination and lab tests.

* Physical cause for the depression is ruled out psychological evaluation should be done. By referring the psychiatrist or psychologist.

 * A good diagnostic evaluation will include a complete history of symptoms when they started

* A diagnostic evaluation must include a mental status examination to determine whether speech or thought patterns or memory are affected. The depression main cause is about feeling loneliness, many research studies says that about 70% of the depressant people facing problem of feeling loneliness.

To avoid loneliness the fact thing we should do is overcome the loneliness. For example, any person undergoes depression when he falls in its activity or a project he should compete or nay relationship problems.

 To overcome this a small example to understand this take an example of empty bottle, it means empty bottle indicates that the bottle is filled with the air, we can’t remove the air which is present in the bottle, to remove the air the only thing we can do is fill the bottle with water.

 Same as the above when we failed in any situation our brain becomes blank and this undergoes with failure, sadness and other activities. To overcome this we should fill our brain with lots of positive feelings and lots of happiness. The any way to avoid depression is to overcome loneliness.

                                          ” Loneliness shows more negative impact to our normal and routine life.”

TO OVERCOME LONELINESS:

* Be comfortable with you, love yourself

*Be solitude with you , solitude means being alone without feeling lonely

* Enjoying our company with fruitful solitude

SELF CARE: self caring our self for physical and mental and emotional stability and we have receive any type of pain and accept it and should move on to it. The main self-care is about eating a proper diet.

HAPPY THOUGHTS:

 Try to think how to feel happy in next minute, think about one favorite memories and memorable memories which happened in your life.

START JOURNALING:

  Journaling means expressing our thoughts with the paper. Try to write your feelings and emotions with a help of pen or paper promisingly this makes us that we expressed our emotion to someone.

         ‘Paper has more patience than people.” Just once you write down whatever you feel .

FACE PROBLEMS:

When you undergo some problems don’t distract it, face it, think it, and solve it distracting is not a permanent solution, solving is a permanent solution, when we solve any problem then we have a feeling causes freedom.

MEDITATE DAILY:

 Doing meditation daily helps in decreasing of  stress levels and emotional levels. Meditation helps us to calm and create a pleasure of happiness to us.

ENJOY NATURE: If we are feeling lonely then observe surroundings in an park and enjoy the nature which help in removing the negative thoughts to the depression people. “Nature has more power than medicines”

DO SIMPLE AD CREATIVE WORKS:

 By doing simple works and creative works like blogging, writing, drawing, painting etc… it can give a pleasure to mind. Creative work like designing can help in changing the mood.

BE A VOLUNTEER:

When we are facing loneliness then become volunteer in any charity organization or any NGO groups this gives you respect and build respect in us. Thus we can achieve a good respect on us and build self-confidence which leads to distribution of suicidal thoughts.

ADOPT A PET:

Pets are the loyal companions to us, pets are used for stress busters adopting a pet, feeding and playing with it gives a pleasure feeling.

 READING BOOKS:  Reading books like fiction and comic books helps us to change our mind.  

Thanks for Reading……

PREPARED BY

PRAVEENA, LATHA SREE, RAJESH

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