COPD image

HOW COPD (CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE) OCCURS

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE(COPD)

Introduction to respiratory system :

    In humans respiratory system can be divided into:-

  • Upper respiratory tract
  • Lower respiratory tract
  • Trachea
  • Lungs

The air moves from external environmental into the body by the following order:

Nostrils – Nasal cavity – pharynx – Larynx – Trachea – Thoracic cavity – Bronchi – Alveoli (site of gas exchange)

lungs

Lungs play a major role in the respiration the lungs deflate and discharge impure air , rich in CO2 into environment.

The entire respiratory system is divided into same major divisions.

A)Ventilation

B)Gases exchange  at the alveolar level

C)Carrier of O2 and CO2 by the blood.

D)Exchange of gases at tissues.

E)Utilization of O2 and production of CO2 by tissues.

  • The utilization of O and production of CO is called Internal Respiration.”
  • The above process is a mechanism of respiration ,whenever an imbalance occurs or any obstruction in the mechanism occurs, there may be leading to the many of the respiratory disorders.

Respiratory disorders:-Asthma, Emphysema , Bronchitis, TB, Pneumonia, COPD, pulmonary hypertension , Pulmonary embolism, Fibrosis.

HOW COPD (CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE)

OCCURS

 COPD is a chronic progressive disorder related to Tobacco, abuse and characterized by airway obstruction. Obstruction changes in spirometer and decreased diffusion capacity are occur before symptoms.

COPD image

The signs and symptoms may be appeared as:-

  • Shortness and breathe
  • Respiratory infections
  • Morning cough.

If the may progressed the signs and symptoms may increased frequency and severity and may also leads to respiratory failure and death. The disease progression may be due to the tobacco smoke.

ICD 10 CODES FOR COPD(Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute lower respiratory infection – J44.0

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with (acute) exacerbation – J44.1

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Unspecified – J44.9

DEFINITION:-

           COPD is a group of respiratory tract disease characterized by airflow obstruction or respiratory failure can be caused by Tobacco smoking and also by the dust. It is characterized by incomplete reversible airway obstruction and mucus hyper secretion. COPD also know as COAD, COCD, CORD . 

According to Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) COPD defined as “a disease state characterized by airflow obstruction but not fully reversible , and it can be associated with abnormal inflammatory response of lungs to toxic particles or gases”.

ETIOLOGY OF COPD :-

 The major risk factors for developing COPD is

  • Smoking
  • Cough with or without mucus
  • Many respiratory infections
  • Dyspnea (shortness of breath).
  • The etiology include α-1-Antitrypsin deficiency and also idiopathic (unknown cause) disease.
  • It also caused by exposure dust and working in coalmine industries and coal dust.

copd smoking

PATHOGENISIS:-PATHOGENESIS OF COPD

COPD PATHO

              Alveolar wall destruction( Emphysema)

 STAGES OF COPD:-

‘0stage’ :- At risk – normal spirometer

Symptoms- Cough, sputum, expectation.

1st stage:- At mild- With or without chronic symptoms like cough and sputum.

2nd  stage :- With or without chronic symptoms like cough, sputum, dyspnoea

3rd stage:-Severe – With or without chronic symptoms such as cough , dyspnoea, sneezing, wheezing.

4th stage:- Very severe- With chronic respiratory failure airflow obstruction.

DIAGNOSIS OF COPD:-

COPD can be diagnosed by

  • Physical examination
  • Using spirometer
  • FEV/FEC-ratio is decreased

It indicates COPD patient cannot force out as much as predicted from their lungs in even one second. In this condition there may be chances of air trapping with increased residual volume which leads to increased total lung capacity.

copd spirometer

Reversibility testing:-

               Used to test the bronchoconstriction due to COPD. It is done by lung function testing before and after administering of the bronchodilator drugs like β-agonist.

MANAGEMENT/TREATMENT OF COPD:-

  • COPD is not curable.
  • Medicines are given to control the symptoms.
  • Smoking restriction is one of the important factor in reducing the progression of COPD.
  • By using bronchodilators, Nebulizer’s, Corticosteroids gives better result.
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Surgical management include lung transplant lung volume reduction surgery are currently used.

COPD   v/s   ASTHMA

  • Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction and bronchial hyperactivity.
  • Where COPD is characterized by incompletely reversible airways obstruction and mucus hypersecretion, it is majorly a disease of small airways.
                  COPD              ASTHMA
1)  Group of respiratory tract disease Caused by airflow obstruction, tobacco, Dust.

2)  Characterized incomplete reversible Airway obstruction& bronchial hyper reactivity

3)  Symptoms include shortness of Breathe, respiratory infections, morning Cough, respiratory failure.

 

  1. Respiratory disease where airway got narrowed in response to Allergen, cold air, emotional stress

2) Reversible airway obstruction

 

 3) Wheezing, rapid breath, person can turn from blue to black, Chest pain, death also in severe Condition.

Thanks for reading……

Prepared by

PRAVEENA, LATHA SREE

Leave a Reply