HOW ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE EFFECTS, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT

Alzheimer’s disease means?

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive dementia affecting cognition, behavior and functional  status with no known cause or cure. Patients eventually loose cognitive, analytical and physical functioning and the disease is ultimately fatal.

Generally this Alzheimer’s is seen in people of age 65 years old is 44% and greater than 70 years of age is 97% nearly 4.5 million have this Alzheimer’s disease.

 This Alzheimer’s  disease is named after DR. Alois alzheimer, who discovered this Alzheimer’s disease in the year 1960.

Alzheimer's disease formation

WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE:

  There are mainly three stages in this Alzheimer’s disease let us now get in detail with these stages of Alzheimer’s disease. The three stages include mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer’s

These stages are categorized based on the test called MMSD. This MMSD means it is an diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s this is called as Folstein mini mental state examination which checks  problem solving skills, counting skills, memory and attention span. Maximum score is 30 points.

Based on these points the stages of Alzheimer’s is been categorized. If the individual scores 26-18 points then it is considered as mild stage, if the individual scores 17-10 points then considered to be in moderate stage, if in case the individual scores 9-0 points then they are considered to be in severe stage.

 1) MILD:  Individual has difficulty in remembering recent events. Ability to manage finances, prepare food and carry out the household activities declines. Begins to withdraw from the tasks and gives up the hobbies and may deny memory problems.

2) MODERATE:  Patient requires assistance with activities of daily living. Frequently disoriented with regard to time(date, year, season). Recall for recent events is severely impaired. May forget some details of past life and names of family and friends. Functioning may fluctuate from day to day. Individual generally denies problems or   may become suspicious or tearful, Loses ability to drive safely, agitation, paranoia and delusions are common.

3) SEVERE: In this stage the patient loses ability to speak, walk, and feed   self. Incontinent of urine and feces. Requires care 24 hrs.

stages of alzheimer's disaese

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES FOR ALZHEIMER’S?

  The particular cause for Alzheimer’s is unknown.

  • Age
  • Family history
  • Down’s syndrome( APP has 3 genes in the patent which cause more accumulation of amylase beta protein)
  • Environmental factors ( long term exposure to pesticides, glues, paints)
  • Life style factors- lack of exercise, poor quality sleep and diet lack of fruits and vegetables)

HOW THIS ALZHEIMER’S CAN BE AFFECTED AND ITS RISK FACTORS:

  • History of head injury
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure/ Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Gender – mostly females are been affected

COMPLICATIONS INCLUDE

  • Restlessness and agitation( anxiety)
  • Bowel and bladder problems
  • Depression
  • Falling
  • Infections
  • Wandering
  • Malnutrition and dehydration

alzheimer's disease

THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OR CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF ALZHEIMER’S:

  This may include cognitive , non-cognitive and functional symptoms.

COGNITIVE:

  • Memory loss( poor recall )
  • Aphasia (unable to speak)
  • Apraxia ( inability to make purposeful movements)
  • Agnosia (loss of ability to identify objects or people)

NON-COGNITIVE:

  • Depression
  • Psychotic symptoms(Hallucinationsand Delusions)
  • Behavioral disturbances (physical and verbal aggression)
  • Uncooperativeness
  • Wandering

FUNCTIONAL:

  • Inability to care for self (dressing, bathing, eating etc)

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease 1

TYPES OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE:

  • FAMILIAL
  • SPORADIC

The familial  type of Alzheimer’s means the disease occurs due to family history or genetics. Whereas the sporadic type means which occur due to increase in age. onset of sporadic type Alzheimer’s is late more than 99 % of Alzheimer’s cases are sporadic.

Mainly this Alzheimer’s is caused due to the formation of beta amyloid plaques and NFT (neuro fibrillary tangles). This plaques are formed due to mutations in amyloid precursor protein which lead to  formation of plaques which gets accumulated near the nerve endings axon and dendrites there by inhibiting the transport of signals to the other neuron. NFT also interrupt the signal passage there by leading to Alzheimer’s disease.

WHAT IS THE TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE?

 FOR COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS:

  • For mild to moderate stage consider therapy with a cholinesterase inhibitor Ex: Donepezil/ Rivastigmine/ Galantamine
  • For moderate to severe stage consider addding antiglutamatergic therapy – Memantine.
  • Managing blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar may prevent the worsening of dementia in patients with Alzheimers
  • For severe stage – Donepezil

NON-COGNITIVE

 Symptomatic treatment is given

General guidelines : use reduced doses, monitor closely, titrate dosage slowly, document carefully, Periodically attempt to reduce medication in minimally symptomatic patients.

Psychotropic medications with anti-cholinergic effects should be avoided because they may worsen cognition. First line therapy – cholinesterase inhibitors, Memantine,

Anti psychotics used to treat disruptive behavior and psychosis

NATURAL REMEDIES FOR ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE:

Coconut oil for Alzheimer’s disease
Caprylic acid could be a carboxylic acid found in processed copra oil. The anatomy breaks down saturated fatty acid into the supermolecule organic compound. the same supermolecule is employed in an exceedingly drug referred to as Ketasyn. Some analysis has found that individuals World Health Organization took Ketasyn had higher memory performance and fewer psychological feature decline. Some people are mistreatment copra oil as a less expensive different to drugs that contains Ketasyn.

coconut oil

             coconut oil

Aromatherapy for Alzheimer’s disease
Aromatherapy uses essential oils to reinforce well-being. One short-run study tested aromatherapy on a bunch of older adults, some with AD. At the tip of the study, all and sundry concerned showed improvement in their thinking skills. The essential oils employed in the study included:
Rosemary
Lemon
Lavender
Orange
Larger studies still got to be conducted over longer periods of your time to verify these findings. It is necessary to recollect to ne’er apply essential oils on to the skin. perpetually dilute 3 to 5 drops in one ounce of a carrier oil like oil.

Coral Calcium for Alzheimer’s disease
Most people get enough calcium from their diet. however some people advocate coral calcium as a treatment for Alzheimer’s. Coral calcium comes from ocean shells and sea life. This suggests the Calcium supplement could contain trace amounts of alternative minerals. Some believe this makes it additional helpful than alternative sources of Calcium.

coral calcium

                             

 Thanks for reading…….  “BE HEALTHY”

Prepared by    

M. Keerthi kumari

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