Acne is commonly inflammatory skin condition that affects both the pediatrics and adult patients.

  • Acne can be mostly occurred in the adolescent age.
  • Patients a young 8 years can present with acne condition can persist in to the childhood.
  • Adolescent patients means who are suffering from acne the symptoms are :-
  1. Depression
  2. Lower quality of life
  3. Psychological comorbidities (Conditions)
  4. Anxiety


                  The term “Acne” derived from Greek word means highest point, peak or facial eruption. Acne is an skin condition Characterized by pimples on the skin especially on the face due to inflammation of sebaceous glands.


Epidemiology OF ACNE :-

  • The most people experience the acne in during adolescence period with >95% teenage boys and 85% teenage girls are affected.
  • Almost 20% of these young people have moderate to severe acne and many as 50% continue to suffer from acne in adulthood.
  • A systemic analysis for the globally study indicate acne was eighth most prevalent disease globally in 2010.

NAMCS :- (National ambulatory medical care survey)

  • United state states that acne  was the most common condition seen by dermatologist in the United states.
  • Approximately two thirds of dermatology visit for acne are made by women.
  • Not only acne the most common dermatological diagnosis in the overall population but it is also most common dermatological diagnosis with skin of colour.



Acne is a disease affecting the Pilosebaceous unit (psu) of the skin and is typically described as:

  1. Non inflammatory
  2. Inflammatory
  • The epidermal – dermal barrier seen in skin surrounds psu provide structural support for basic components of hair, hair follicle, erector pili muscles.
  • The basement membrane lined with basal stem cells given correct hormones from the body develop in to the sebaceous cells and keratinocytes that produces oil and hair.
  • The causative organism species are propionibacterium acnes.
  1.   Squamous epithelial cells
  2.   Stimulated by hormones androgens
  3. They activated and begin to proliferate
  4. These cells can’t escape from the infundibulum
  5. They form plug, sebum production and hair growth
  6. The pressure within unit comprise availability of diffusible oxygen to cells
  7. More over production of sebum provides resources of nutrients in form of fatty acids to bacteria.
  8. It bursts & exposes its contents to our body’s immune system.


  1. Hormones :- DHT (dihydrotestesterone) is one of potent acnogens derived from precursors of  both men & women.
  2. Smoking & Nicotine :- smoking and Nicotine products cause acne mostly in young adult men.
  3. Genetics :- cytochrome P450 genes and glycoproteins have been the genetic predisposition to acne vulgaris.

ACNE hormones


There are mainly 5 types of acne,

They are :-

  1. White heads.
  2.  Black heads.
  3.  Papules. 
  4. Pustules.
  5. Nodules.


  1. White heads :-
  • white heads comes as white spots on the skin that are infect oil glands
  • Excessive oil production causes clogging of the Glands
  • Thus formed oil cant reach surface and is trapped between the skin layers resulting in white heads.
  • They commonly appears on the skin, nose, face.

white head acne 1

  1. Black heads :-

  • Black heads comes by types of acne that are extremely common usually seen around the nasal area.
  • They are tiny black lumps on the skin formed as a blocked follicles.
  • These black lumps are formed when bacteria, dead skin & other harmful substances clog the follicles and reach the surface.
  • They react with oxygen in the air and causes black heads.

acne b

3. Papules :-

  • Papules are flat bed bumps that are inflamed and appear as small red dots or bumps on the skin.
  • These might be sensitive to touch.
  • Refrain from picking on them as doing so can cause scars.

papule acne

  1. Pustules :-

  • These are inflammed acne that is hard to touch, they are red bumps fixed with pus that occur on the face, back, shoulders, breast bene area, grain and arm pits.
  • They are primarily originate in sweaty regions of our body.
  • Refrain from picking doing cause permanent scar.
  1. Nodules :-

  • Nodules are tender hard lumps that are larger than papules and pustules.
  • A nodule is a painful and an inflamed bump that contains pus and hard to touch.

 Natural Remedies :-

  • Apply apple cider vinegar :- Apple contains antioxidants which prevents the oxidation process in the skin.
  • Take zinc supplement :- These element useful for the cell growth and metabolism of skin.
  • Honey & cinnamon:-
  • They both have excellent antioxidants sources.
  • They reduce the acne by preventing free radical formation

Spots treat with tea oil :-

  • This oil is extracted from the melaleuca alternifolia.
  • It have ability to fight and reduce skin inflammation.
  • This oil is highly potent it is diluted before applying to our skin.
  • Apply green tea :- green tea is rich in antioxidants and it promotes good healrh.
  • Moisturize with aloe vera :-
  • Aloe gel is used for acne.
  • It helps to heal wounds and burns and inflammation.
  • Exfoliate by rubbing :-

Remove top layer of dead skin cells by mechanically by using brush or scrub to remove cells.

aloe Vera for acne

  • Reduce stress
  • Exercise regularly.




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