What is Diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long–term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs.
The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
Types of Diabetes mellitus:
} Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
} Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
} Gestational Diabetes
} Other types
LADA ( latent autoimmune diabetes in adults )
MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of youth)
Secondary Diabetes Mellitus
What is Type 1 Diabetes mellitus?
} It is called as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes.
} Type 1 diabetes develops when the body’s immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age.
} Type 1 diabetes may account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes may include autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors.
What is Type 2 Diabetes mellitus?
} Type 2 diabetes is called as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. It usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin.
} Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.
} Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents.
What is Gestational Diabetes?
} Gestational diabetes is a form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. It occurs more frequently among African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and American Indians. It is also more common among obese women and women with a family history of diabetes.
} During pregnancy, gestational diabetes requires treatment to normalize maternal blood glucose levels to avoid complications in the infant. After pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes.
What is MODY diabetes?
} Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young affects approximately one or two per cent of people who have diabetes, and may often go unrecognized in its early stages.
} It is a form of diabetes that develops before the patient reaches 25. It also runs in families, and can pass from one generation to the next. MODY does not always require insulin treatment.
What is Secondary Diabetes mellitus?
} Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medical condition. Because the cause of diabetes ranges between different conditions, the way in which blood glucose levels are controlled can also vary.
} Secondary diabetes will often be permanent but for some forms, it may be possible to reverse or eradicate the effects of hyperglycemia.
Causes of Diabetes mellitus: