CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
Congenital heart disease is also called as congenital heart or congenital heart defect. A congenital heart disease means problem in the structure of the heart which is present at birth. This congenital heart disease is most common type of birth defect. This may involve walls of heart, valves of heart, arteries, veins near the heart which can disrupt the normal blood flow through the heart resulting in slow down of blood flow, go in wrong direction, wrong place or completely blocked.The signs and symptoms depend on specific type of defect. Symptoms may vary from none to life threatening.
There are currently one million adults and one million children in united states living with congenital heart disease. Treatments for this defects have been improved from past few decades.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?
There are many different types mainly divided into :
- Heart valve defects
- Heart wall defects
- Blood vessel defects
HEART VALVE DEFECTS: The valves inside the heart which direct the blood flow may close or leak which interfere the ability of heart to pump blood properly.
HEART WALL DEFECTS: The natural walls that exist between upper and lower chambers left and right side of heart may not be developed correctly which cause the blood to back up into the heart . By which the pressure on heart increase as it has to work harder resulting in high blood pressure.
BLOOD VESSEL DEFECT: The arteries and veins carry the blood to heart and from heart to all body parts when this stop working properly by any obstruction which may lead to reduced blood supply leading to various health complications.
CYANOTIC AND ACYANOTIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE:
The cyanotic heart disease means which cause low level of oxygen in blood where as acyanotic doesn’t. Babies with reduced oxygen levels may suffer with breathlessness and their color of skin may turn to blue in color.
DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE:
These are often detected during pregnancy by ultrasound.
Echocardiogram, chestX-ray may also be done.
SYMPTOMS OF CONGENITAL HHEART DISEASE:
- Bluish lipss, skin, fingers, toes
- Breathlessness or trouble in breathing
- Feeding difficulties
- Low birth weight
- Chest pain
- Delayed growth
In some cases, the symptoms may not appear until many years after birth. such symptoms may include:
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Trouble breathing
CAUSES OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE:
This congenital heart disease occur as result of early development problem in the structure of heart which interfere with blood flow which affect in breathing. The suspected causes include:
- Family history
- Alcohol or illegal drugs consumption during pregnancy which may increase childs risk for having congenital heart defects.
- Certain drugs which are taken during pregnancy which should not be taken
- Mothers who are having any viral infection during the first trimester
- Increase in blood sugar levels may effect the child development
TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE:
The treatment depends on the severity of the disease, Some may have mild heart defects which heal by their own as time passes. Others require treatment which may include:
- Taking medications which help in preventing blood clots from forming or the drugs which control irregular heart beat
- Implantable heart devices
- Catheter procedures
- Open heart surgeries
- Heart transplant
HOW CAN CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE BE PREVENTED:
Women who are planning to become pregnant must take some precautions to minimize the risk of giving birth to baby with congenital heart disease.
- Better to take doctors advise for using any OTC medications
- If women is with diabetes, the sugar levels must be maintained
- Avoid drinking of alcohol and usage of illegal drugs during pregnancy
- If having family history of congenital heart disease undergo genetic screening. Certain genes may lead to abnormal heart development .
HERE ARE SOME OF THE CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES WHICH OCCUR:
- Atrial septal defect
- Atrioventricular septal defect
- Coarctatio of aorta
- Double outlet right ventricle
- Ebstein anomaly
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- Interrupted aortic arch
- Plumonary atresia
- Single ventricle
- Teralogy of Fallot
- Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
- Tricuspid atresia etc….
Thanks for reading……. “BE HEALTHY”
M KEERTHI KUMARI